Bluetooth is a radio technology that has many bluetooth versions, allows devices to communicate easily over short distances of less than 10 meters. It can wirelessly exchange data between multiple devices such as mobile phones, laptops, wireless headsets, PDAs, and allied peripherals.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 1.0(Bluetooth 1.0)
Bluetooth 1: An Early exploration of Short-range communication
The Bluetooth 1.0 version was introduced to the market in 1999. Multiple challenges were witnessed in the initial versions of Bluetooth 1.0A and 1.0B. Many sellers pointed out that these Bluetooth versions are incompatible with their products. These versions send the Bluetooth hardware’s BD_ADDR address after connecting handshaking devices. It caused data leakage and put some users off as it was anonymous on the protocol level.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 1.1(Bluetooth 1.1)
The transmission rate in the Bluetooth 1.1 version is around 748~ 810KPBS8. Its quality of communication is quickly impacted by the intrusion of products of similar frequency since it is an early design.
Bluetooth version 1.1 is formally registered in the IEEE 802.15.1 standard, which outlines the specifications of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) for wireless connectivity between devices. Its rate of transfer rate is 0.7Mbps.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 1.2(Bluetooth 1.2)
The transmission rate in Bluetooth 1.2 version is between 748~ and 810KPBS, although it has an added hopping function for anti-interference frequency.
This Bluetooth version is downward compatible with Bluetooth version 1.1. It has an enhanced anonymity method that addresses the security issues uncovered by version 1.0. Moreover, it has an added BD_ADDR function that safeguards users from identity sniffing attacks and tracking.
In addition, four new features have been added to the Bluetooth 1.2 version: ·They include;
- The Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) technology – It minimizes intrusion between Bluetooth products and other wireless communication devices.
- The (Extended Synchronous Connection Oriented Links (Esco – It offers the transmission of QoS audio to meet the necessities of audio products and high-order voice by extending the Synchronous Connection Oriented channel technology
- Enhanced Connection function – It makes the connection process faster and more stable by shortening the time of re-search and re-connection.
- The Supports Stereo requirements for sound transmission, although it only works in simplex mode.
Introduction of Bluetooth Version 2(Bluetooth 2)
The rate of transmission in this Bluetooth version is around 1.8mpbs to 2.1mpbs. It works effectively in a duplex mode. Also, it simultaneously transmits high-quality pictures/files and voice communication. It supports stereo when the consumption of energy is reduced.
Bluetooth 2: The EDR era of power transmission rate
Bluetooth 2.0 is an enhanced version of version 1.2. Its transmission rate is about 3Mbps, built with the Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) technology that improves multitasking capability. Here, numerous Bluetooth devices can run simultaneously.
Moreover, the duplex mode is supported in this Bluetooth 2.0 version. Hence, it can simultaneously perform voice communication while transferring documents or high-quality pictures. Altogether, the EDR technology decreases the consumption of power by minimizing the liability cycles of work. Besides, the Bluetooth 2.0 version has an improved bandwidth that efficiently increases the number of devices connected.
On the other hand, the Bluetooth 2.1 version was developed in 2007. It is added with a power-saving function for Sniff Sub rating. The function also prolongs the interval of sending signals authorizing each other to around 0.5 seconds from 0.1 seconds in the previous version, significantly decreasing the Bluetooth chip’s workload.
Furthermore, version 2.1 is added with the SSP simple and secure pairing function to enhance the experience of pairing in Bluetooth devices. It also improves the use and intensity of security. It also supports near-field communication (NFC) technology. It transmits the pairing password via NFC without manual input, provided two closely-placed Bluetooth devices are installed with NFC chips.
Introduction of Bluetooth Version 3(Bluetooth 3)
The 3 version is the third generation of Bluetooth technology. It has a high-speed rate of transmission of up to 24Mbps
The Bluetooth 3.0 version was developed in 2009 with an added feature of optional high-speed technology. It quickly attains video recorder to HD TV, PC to PMP, UMPC to printer between the data transmission.
The Generic Alternate MAC/PHY (AMP) is at the heart of Bluetooth 3.0. It is a new Alternate RF technology that enables the Bluetooth protocol stack to select the right RF for any job energetically.
Bluetooth 3.0 version is built with the EPC improved power control technology, enhanced by 802.11. The feature significantly decreases the authentic idle consumption of power.
Furthermore, the new feature also adds the UCD unidirectional broadcast connectionless information technology to enhance the matching abilities of Bluetooth devices.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 4.0(Bluetooth 4.0)
It is the fourth generation of Bluetooth technology. The Bluetooth technology Alliance launched its specifications on July 7, 2010. This version consumes low power as it is added with a power-saving feature. Bluetooth 4.0 is Bluetooth’s first specification for a comprehensive protocol that integrates all three specifications. It has proposed both traditional and high-speed Bluetooth. High-speed Bluetooth primarily concentrates on data transmission and exchange, while traditional Bluetooth emphasizes device connection and data communication. It also has the Bluetooth Low Power feature, which centres on connecting devices requiring less bandwidth. Bluetooth 4.0 consumes 90 percent less power than preceding versions.
The Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), developed by the Nokia Company, was previously known as Wibree technology. Initially, it was built for mobile devices as a wireless communication technology for low power consumption. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) was renamed once recognized and standardized by the SIG. BLE was developed with three protocol specifications that can be combined to attain various application patterns.
There are two chip modes in Bluetooth 4.0 (Single mode and Dual mode). The Single Mode is only compatible with Bluetooth 4.0, but it cannot communicate with versions 3.0/2.1/2.0. It is applied to sensor devices that consume high power and use button batteries, such as thermometers and heart rate monitors. On the other hand, the Dual Mode is only downward compatible with Bluetooth 3.0/2.1/2.0 versions. This mode is used in traditional Bluetooth devices that consume low power. Moreover, the Bluetooth 4.0 version also improves the Bluetooth’s transmission range to over 100 meters while in low power mode. It has a quicker response time, can complete settings in a connection, and begins the transfer of data in less than 3 milliseconds. This Bluetooth version is equipped with a more secure technology that uses the AES-128 CCM encryption algorithm for packet authentication and encryption.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 4.1(Bluetooth 4.1)
Bluetooth version 4.1 was developed in 2013. Although it was built with fewer changes in range and speed transmissions from the previous version, the software has other significant developments. The main objective of the updates is to make Bluetooth Smart a primary driver of the Internet of Things. Bluetooth version 4.1 supports seamless partnership with LTE. Whenever the radio signals of Bluetooth and LTE transfer data simultaneously, Bluetooth 4.1 can automatically synchronize their transfer data to guarantee supportive communication and minimize mutual interference. This enables developers and manufacturers to tailor the reconnection interval for Bluetooth 4.1 devices, thus offering enhanced control and flexibility.
Bluetooth version 4.1 supports cloud synchronization and has a dedicated IPv6 channel feature. Bluetooth 4.1 devices only link to networked devices to synchronize information with the cloud via the IPv6 feature to meet the IoT application requirements. It also supports role exchange between the central device and the extended device. This version is compatible with Bluetooth 4.1 standard headsets, keyboards, watches, and mouse. Moreover, it can freely send and receive information without using data hubs like mobile phones, PCs, and tablets. For instance, smartwatches and pedometers can enable conversations even by bypassing smartphones.
Introduction of Bluetooth Version 4.2(Bluetooth 4.2)
The Bluetooth 4.2 version was developed in 2014. This version has an improved capacity of Bluetooth Smart data packets that can hold 10 times more data, making it 2.5 times faster than its predecessor. It is built with an enhanced rate of transmission and privacy that makes the Bluetooth signals always request the user’s permission to connect to or track the device of the user. Bluetooth 4.2 version supports the 6LoWPAN, a standard wireless personal domain network for low speed based on IPv6.
Devices built with the Bluetooth 4.2 can directly access the Internet through 6LoWPAN and IPv6. The technology enables numerous Bluetooth devices to link to the Internet or LAN using a single terminal. With the Bluetooth 4.2 version, it is faster and easier to connect personal sensors to your home as it allows different smart home products to avoid the connection of a relatively complex Wi-Fi and instead use Bluetooth.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 5.0(Bluetooth 5.0)
Bluetooth version 5.0 is the fifth generation of Bluetooth. With its development in 2016, this Bluetooth version opened the door for the era of IoT.
It offers a more prolonged and faster transfer of data in low-power mode, with a speed of up to 2 Mbps. Also, this version provides 4 times more efficient transmission distance and 8 times more data packet capacity than its predecessor. It supports indoor positioning and navigation functions where it can attain an accuracy of less than 1-meter indoor positioning when combined with Wi-Fi.
The Bluetooth version 5.0 software was primarily built for IoT to offer smart homes higher performance and low power consumption.
The Mesh network is the key to IoT. It is a network technology that is independently developed, and it uses Bluetooth devices as signal communication stations to cover a vast physical area. The mesh network is compatible with the series protocols of Bluetooth 4 and 5. It creates a “one-to-one” or “one-to-many” micro-network connection where the linking of traditional Bluetooth is attained by “pairing” from one device to another. The network allows devices to recognize “many-to-many” connections.
In the Mesh network, data can be sent and received from every device node. Data can be transmitted between nodes, provided that one device is connected to the gateway. This allows the transmission of information to a longer distance than the radio wave’s usual transmission distance.
The Mesh network can be used in office buildings, manufacturing plants, business parks, shopping malls, and a more comprehensive range of scenarios. It offers more stable control solutions for security cameras, lighting equipment, smoke detectors, industrial automation equipment, and ecological sensors.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 5.1(Bluetooth 5.1)
The Bluetooth 5.1 version was developed in 2019. Its technical specification uses the direction finding feature to improve location services and identify the direction of Bluetooth signals. This Bluetooth direction finding feature allows developers to market products that can attain positioning accuracy down to a centimetre level and determine device orientation. Bluetooth Local Services measures the distance between two devices using RSSI. In the scenarios of IPS and RTLS, a centimeter level positioning can be attained by using the direction finding and the three times ranging technologies. In the direction-finding technology, the signal of Bluetooth is determined by two kinds of antenna array technology.
- Angle of Arrival (AOA) technology
- Angle of Departure (AOD) technology
The AOD direction finding feature is mainly used in IPS scenarios for navigation and pathfinding. It uses a mobile phone with a corresponding APP as the receiver and the antenna array as the locator. Only one antenna is needed. All signals are sent from many signals in a locator, the signals pass through the phone’s antenna. The signal’s direction is calculated from the IQ sample extracted from the phone.
Introduction to Bluetooth Version 5.2(Bluetooth 5.2)
Bluetooth 5.2 is a standard version of Bluetooth released in 2020 by the Bluetooth Technology Alliance. Its primary features are;
- LE power control
- Improved ATT protocol
- Signal synchronization
- Stable and faster connection
- Enhanced anti-interference
Advantages of Bluetooth Version 5(Bluetooth 5)
In Bluetooth 5.1 and previous versions, transmissions do not support concurrency as they are processed sequentially. Thus, all communications should be performed after a complete PDU/SUD. Bluetooth 5.2 version improves the ATT protocol, Enhances EATT stability, modifies the model of sequential transaction model, and enables the stack to process concurrent transactions efficiently.
The Bluetooth 5.1 version does not define the power control function’s Bluetooth BR/EDR feature. It only defines the BLE bidirectional power control feature used in various application scenarios. This feature assists in minimizing power consumption and improves the stability and reliability of a device while remaining connected.
Bluetooth 5.1 and previous versions only support free broadcast and connection-oriented asynchronous communication links. On the other hand, the LE synchronization channels of Bluetooth 5.2 are redefined based on the low-power application of the Bluetooth Audio’s subsequent generation. This includes the transmission channel of synchronous Audio stream in broadcast mode and the transmission channel of Audio stream in connection mode. The LE synchronous channel is implemented when the BLE Controller defines a new communication protocol layer.