Current practical IoT applications in the industry:
There are a growing number of IoT devices available to consumers, including connected vehicles, home automation, connected wearables, connected health monitoring devices, and remote monitoring devices.
The Industrial application of the IoT is IIoT. The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) focuses on machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, making use of big data, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and other technologies to make industrial operations more efficient and reliable.
Applications of the Internet of Things in agriculture include collecting, analyzing, and applying data on temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, pests and diseases, and soil composition. This approach, called precision agriculture, uses decision support systems to analyze the data collected precisely to improve the quality and quantity of output and reduce waste.
Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is the Internet of Things applied to healthcare, including data collection, analysis, research, and monitoring applications, to create digital healthcare systems. IoT devices can be used to activate remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems, ranging from simple devices such as blood pressure monitors and portable physiological monitors to devices implanted in the body such as pacemakers and cochlear implants. The WORLD Health Organization (WHO) plans to use mobile devices to collect and analyze healthcare data to create an m-Health system.
The Internet of Things can help integrate information processing, communication, and control. IoT applications can be extended to all levels of transportation systems, including vehicles, infrastructure, and drivers. Information transfer between IoT components enables communication within and between vehicles, enabling applications such as intelligent traffic lights, intelligent parking, electronic road pricing systems, logistics and fleet management, active cruise control, and safety and road assistance.
The application of IoT in infrastructure is mainly to monitor and control various kinds of infrastructure, such as railway tracks, Bridges, offshore and onshore wind farms, waste management, etc. Arrange repair and maintenance activities efficiently by monitoring any incidents or changes in structural condition.
Internet of Military Things (IoMT) is the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the Military field. The purpose is to detect and monitor combat-related targets, mainly affected by future combat in urban environments. Military IoT-related areas include sensors, vehicles, robotics, weapons, wearable smart products, and the use of related smart technologies on the battlefield.
The Internet of Things, or IoT for short, is a system that computes the relationship between machines, devices, and digital machines. It has a universal unique identifier (UID) and the ability to transfer data over a network without person-to-person or person-to-device interaction.
The IoT digitizes the real world and has a wide range of applications. The Internet of Things can bring dispersed data closer together and unify digital information about objects. The application fields of IoT mainly include logistics, industrial manufacturing, transportation, healthcare, personal and social fields, intelligent environment (home, office, factory), etc.
IoT architectures are typically divided into three or four layers. The three-layer architecture consists of a network layer, application layer, and sensor layer from bottom to top. The four layers of architecture from bottom to top are the platform tool layer, sensor layer, network connection layer, and application service layer. The difference between layer 3 and layer 4 architecture is that Layer 4 divides the “application layer” of layer 3 into “platform tool layer” and “application service layer”, and makes a more detailed distinction between software applications.
The implementation of the Internet of Things requires that each object connected to the Internet of things be assigned a unique identity or address. After the IoT is connected to the Internet, it is estimated that a large number of IP addresses are needed. Currently, the mainstream IPv4 address space is limited, so the objects in the Internet of Things tend to use the next-generation Internet Protocol (IPv6) to provide enough address space.
There are a variety of networking technologies for the Internet of Things to choose from, which can be divided into short-range wireless, medium-range wireless, long-distance wireless, and wired technologies according to the effective transmission distance:
Bluetooth Mesh Networking – Standardizes mesh networking using Bluetooth technology, increasing the number of nodes and providing a standardized application layer.
Wi-fi – Using visible light for increased bandwidth. is a wireless communication technology similar to the Wi-Fi standard.
NFC — A communication protocol that enables two electronic devices to communicate within 4 cm of each other.
RFID – Technology that uses electromagnetic fields to access data in Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.
Wi-fi – A wireless LAN technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard.
ZigBee – A personal network communication protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard, featuring low power consumption, low data rate, and low cost.
Z-wave – A wireless communication protocol primarily used in smart homes and security applications.
5G – a new generation of mobile communications technology that provides reduced latency, high data rates, large-scale device connectivity, energy savings, and increased system capacity.
LPWAN – Provides Low data rate and remote communication, reducing Power consumption and transmission cost. Available LPWAN technologies and protocols include NB-IoT using licensed bands, LoRa, Sigfox, Weightless, Random Phase Multiple Access (RPMA), AND IEEE 802.11ah using unlicensed bands.
Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) – communication technology transmitted through satellites using a Small dish antenna.
Ethernet – A technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard that can be connected to a hub or network switch using twisted-pair cables and optical fibers.
PLC — Communication technology that transmits data and power by cable, with standards such as G.Hn and HomePlug.
The application layer can be subdivided into “application service layer” and “platform tool layer” in the four-layer architecture of the IoT. The platform tool layer is the software platform of the bottom layer, which serves as the interface between the network layer and application service layer to support various software applications. The “platform-tools layer” includes big data, blockchain, software-defined networks, software-defined storage, software-defined data centers, secure communications, anti-virus software, artificial intelligence-related (e.g., natural language processing, deep learning, speech recognition, pattern recognition, computer vision…) And so on; The application service layer directly presents the original data for different application requirements, or through value-added processing, provides users with a human-machine interface, or the corresponding hardware/software target to get the desired information. Can be categorized as an “application services layer” including VR/AR, HCI, service-oriented architecture, sustainable development-related (life cycle assessment, energy-saving, carbon footprint…) And so on.
In the application layer, applications are usually written in multiple programming languages, using HTTPS and OAuth protocols. Use various forms of database systems on the back end of the platform, such as time-series data or back-end data storage systems (Cassandra, PostgreSQL, etc.).
Most IoT systems are built on cloud computing, where event queuing and messaging systems are available to handle communications at all levels. Some experts classify the three layers in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) as edge, platform, and enterprise, which are connected through adjacent networks, access networks, and service networks, respectively.
The deployment of IoT includes
1. Private IoT, which provides services within a single organization;
2. Internet of Public Things, providing services to the public or large user groups based on the Internet;
3. Community Internet of Things;
4. Mixture networking.
IoT deployment modes include:
Services provided within a single organization may be implemented and maintained by the organization or a third party entrusted by the organization. The control engineering network is copyrighted, mainly in the internal network of the organization, but also outside the organization.
Internet-based services to the public or large user groups are typically operated by an organization (or, to a lesser extent, a third party entrusted by it).
To provide services to a group of institutions (e.g., various commissions under a city government: transportation bureau, environmental protection bureau, public security Bureau, urban management Bureau, etc.) or an associated “community”. The operation and maintenance may be coordinated by two or more organizations, mainly on the Intranet and network.
It is a combination of two or more of the above IoT, but with a unified operation entity behind it.
What technologies are being used for IoT deployment
When looking for the right solution, it is important to provide options because each use case has different connection requirements. Early adopters of the Internet of Things have used cellular, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi connectivity, especially in use cases that require ultra-high reliability, extremely high availability, and low latency. Each solution will play a key role in determining the best deployment of iot networks.
While 5G offers data rates, lower latency, higher capacity, and a core network of software designs, it also has a short-range across the mmWave spectrum, can be costly to deploy, and comes with a complex ecosystem.
The benefits of taking advantage of Wi-Fi include simplified cost-efficient deployment, can be seen as a strong alternative to 5G, and offers open roaming. However, Wi-Fi offers limited coverage, limited security, and high energy consumption.
The advantages of deploying Bluetooth include low cost, ease of deployment, and no hardware required to take advantage of the technology. However, it has the characteristics of short-range, low bandwidth, and short connection time.
LoRa works well in use cases requiring low battery consumption and remote capabilities can be deployed in a cost-effective manner and provide an open business model for both public and private deployments. However, this technique is not ideal when use cases require high data rates or applications that require low latency.
For use cases that require remote and low-power connections, LPWAN is the best choice. The technology can be deployed at sea, in space, and on land, allowing sensors to transmit information wirelessly over a wide area without much effort. Internet of thing solutions with remote, low-power capabilities provide connectivity for traditional internet of things applications and incredible bandwidth for critical infrastructure across a variety of use cases worldwide
The top 10 IoT applications are equipment monitoring, machine and infrastructure maintenance, logistics and tracking, container environment, machine management inventory, network data for marketing, identification of dangerous websites, driverless trucks, WAN monitoring, and GPS data aggregation.
Things like monitoring or adjusting a building’s thermostat can be done remotely, even to save energy and simplify maintenance procedures. The beauty of this IoT application is that it’s easy to implement, easy to tease out performance benchmarks, and get needed improvements.
Sensors can be placed on infrastructure materials and equipment, such as railway tracks, to monitor the condition of these components and raise an alarm while something goes wrong with them. Some urban traffic authorities have already adopted this IoT technology to proactively maintain faults before they occur.
The transportation industry now attaches sensors to moving trucks and individual parts that are being transported. The central system tracks these shipments from the start to the end. Doing so prevents theft in remote locations and keeps the corporate supply chain on track because management can clearly see where the vehicle is (and should be) at any point in time.
Also in the logistics and transportation industry, containers carrying perishable goods are monitored for ambient conditions, and sensors sound an alarm if they are outside the temperature or humidity range. Moreover, the sensor sounds an alarm when the seal is broken or the container is disturbed. This information is sent directly to decision-makers via a central system in real-time so that situations can be remedied, even if the goods are in transit around the globe.
Portable stores and self-service vending machines that offer consumers a variety of items can now send automatic replenishment alerts when specific items fall below reorder levels. This saves retailers money as they only need to have field workers restock when it’s required.
Companies can choose to use their own analytics to track customer behavior online, or they can outsource the task to a marketing firm with a reputation in the field. In site navigation mode, visitors to and from your site, the types of devices they use, and other relevant data about visitors can be aggregated to get a fuller picture. The combination of transaction data and IoT data will enrich your marketing analytics and forecasts, which can be implemented quickly.
Security services offered by commercial companies allow network administrators to track Internet site visits, track machine-to-machine communications from corporate computers, and uncover IT addresses and “dangerous” websites regularly visited by corporate computers. Practice reduces the risk of malware and malware on your network.
In remote areas with no road infrastructure and harsh weather conditions, companies in the gas and oil extraction industry are using driverless trucks that can be remotely communicated and controlled.
Businesses can well monitor and modify their network traffic, but when that traffic is routed through a wide area network or the Internet, it sometimes seems to be out of their control. Routers at the edges of offices in different locations around the world now show a significantly different quality of service, depending on whether the office is in Singapore or Rio de Janeiro.
GPS data aggregation is one of the most popular data collection methods for the Internet of Things. Businesses like it because it lets them count weather data, graphical data, infrastructure data, demographic data, and any type of data that can be pinpointed to a specific geographic location.
Security is central to every solution, and the Internet of Things is no exception. Here are four guidelines integrators should follow to ensure IoT projects are as secure as possible.
IoT devices are the most vulnerable part of IoT networks because they typically use simple processors and operating systems that may not support advanced security features. They are also the largest in terms of the number of units and the diversity of products and manufacturers. That makes IoT solutions that protect billions of devices potentially complicated.
To make matters worse, IoT devices lie outside the boundaries of traditional networks and are often installed and managed by non-IT organizations in open and unprotected places such as farmland, parking lots, and factory floors.
“One particular IoT device may be secure, but another may be vulnerable,” explains Benson Chan, senior partner at Strategy of Things. With billions of IoT devices expected to be deployed in the coming years, hackers are increasingly focusing on this area.”
The one thing all IoT devices have in common is an Internet connection, without which they’re really just “things.” Therefore, networks connecting IoT devices must be protected by traditional end-security tools such as antivirus and anti-malware, firewalls, and intrusion prevention and detection systems.
Device authentication is critical to network protection. If an unauthorized device is detected, the operation must be automatically started. “This operation may include disconnecting devices, blocking traffic and notifying administrators,” Benson Chan noted. The first step in securing an enterprise network should be to isolate it from the Internet of Things network so that internet-related vulnerabilities have no chance of infecting other systems.
Managing IoT devices is complicated by the sheer number of devices to focus on. But continuous management is necessary because each device has its own weaknesses. “To use IoT device management and automation tools, the more IoT devices in the network, the more difficult it is to manage,” Advises Benson Chan. The use of automated tools simplifies the administration process, reduces errors and missing devices, and ensures that all operations are applied consistently across all devices.
At a minimum, management means setting appropriately strict security levels prior to deployment, regularly checking and updating firmware, and working hard to apply security patches.
Iot security practices and tools are evolving, and checking systems regularly is the only way to keep devices on a distributed network secure.
In the process of productization of Internet of Things technology, China has been lacking in the mastery of some key technologies, so the product level cannot be improved and the price cannot be lowered. The lack of independent property rights for key technologies such as RFID is one of the key factors limiting the development of the Internet of Things in China.
At present, the industry technology mainly lacks the following two aspects of standards: interface standardization; Standardization of data model Although China established the RFID industry alliance as early as November 2005, at the same time, China’s radio frequency identification (RFID) technology policy white paper was issued the following year, pointing out that we should focus on the research and development of RFID core technology, develop technical standards in line with China’s national conditions But now, we can find that the RFID industry in China is still a mess technology strength is increasing, but the technical standard but also as a mirror of the month Is like China’s 3 g standard, for the interests of all aspects, finally, China’s 3 g with three different standards of Internet of things finally how, can only wait for time to tell us the answer.
Compared with the us domestic perfect degree of the Internet of things industry chain, there are large gaps Although the current domestic three big operators and ZTE, Huawei’s this kind of system equipment manufacturers is a world-class level, but other parts relatively lack of IoT industry necessarily need chip suppliers sensing equipment system solution for manufacturers of upstream and downstream manufacturers such as mobile operators to cooperate, Therefore, in order to develop the Internet of things in China, there is still a lot of work to be done in terms of the system, such as strengthening the cooperation between competent departments of radio, television, telecommunications and transportation industries, jointly promoting the establishment of information and intelligent transportation system and speeding up the integration process of telecommunications network, broadcasting power grid and Internet The cooperation of the industrial chain needs to take into account the interests of all parties, and the popularization of the Internet of Things is still quite long under the background of the interest mechanism and business model of all parties not yet formed.
IoT application field is very wide, with many great and cross-industry applications, but these industries points belong to different government functional departments, to develop the Internet of things the sensing technology-based information application, in the process of industrialization, must strengthen the industry department in charge of coordination and interaction with an open mind on work together to break the department of industry areas Only by promoting resource sharing and strengthening institutional optimization and reform, can the smooth development of the Internet of Things industry be effectively guaranteed.
Iot into perception, networks, and application of three levels, on every level, there are so many choices that will go to exploit market, so in the process of the construction of ecological environment in the future, the business model is the key For any of the information industry revolution, the emergence of a new type and the business profit model is the inevitable result of the development of mature, but it is so far It is not reflected in the development of the Internet of Things, and no industry can uniformly lead the development of the IoT. At present, some economic benefits directly brought by the development of the Internet of Things are mainly concentrated in the electronic components related to the Internet of Things. It will take a long time to see the opportunities that huge data flows will bring to network operators and the impact they will have on downstream industries such as logistics and retail.
IoT industry is the need to connect objects and things to better control and manage This characteristic determines its hair Exhibition will bring along with the economic development and social needs and create more applications So, in the Internet of things sensing technology promotion at the beginning of the period, single function, the problems of high price is hard to avoid Because, electronic tags, reading and writing equipment is expensive, so it is difficult to form Into a large-scale application.
And because there is no large-scale applications, electronic tag and the cost of the read/write device will remain not reached the expected cost is high, there are no large-scale applications, and no large-scale applications, the problem of the high cost of more difficulty solving how to process the user in terms of cost of early barriers became the primary problem of open this a slice of the market So the cost has not been down to you can And the development of the Internet of Things will be limited.
In the Internet of things, the construction of the sensor network for RFID tags embedded in advance any items which are closely linked with the people can see people on the concept of life all around him, it seems, are still not very can accept items including yourself all the time is in a state of being monitored, this led directly to the embedded tags are bound to make personal privacy issues are violated. Therefore, the privacy of the owner of the signature is a key issue for the promotion of RFID technology and the Internet of Things. And if the government cooperates with large foreign enterprises in this respect, how to ensure that business information and state secrets will not be leaked is also crucial So, at this point, the development of the Internet of Things is not just a technical issue, but more likely involves political, legal and national security issues.